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我看了朋友圈疯传的罗斯高演讲视频,全程浑身不适
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我看了朋友圈疯传的罗斯高演讲视频,全程浑身不适

26 九月 2017 - 12:09
(橙雨伞公益)上个礼拜,经济学家罗斯高的一篇演讲在微博、朋友圈里转了又转。
 
一打开那篇微信推送,看到的第一句话就是“马上就要想想,怎么让妈妈留在农村,让她怎么教她的孩子”。
 
不敢相信一位著名的经济教授会说出这样带有性别歧视的话,于是去看了完整视频,结果更惊讶了:
 
 
好吧,如果你懒得看完这30多分钟的视频,下面这些视频截图也许能让你了解罗斯高的一些核心思想:
 
 
好吧,字里行间充满着对妈妈育儿的嘲讽和责怪,却毫不提及爸爸的责任。你为什么不问爸爸有没有读故事书?
 
我忍着刺耳的言论听到了最后,终于说到解决方案了,结果还是一样大跌眼镜:
 
罗斯高的解决方案,就是“教妈妈怎么跟孩子玩”。
 
在我这样的女权主义者看来,这句话无疑非常刺目;但罗斯高作为一个研究农村问题研究了那么久的经济学家来说,说出这句话可能只是再“自然”不过的事。
 
毕竟,留守儿童的妈妈们可是有一种能让孩子“改头换面”、“飞黄腾达”的神力,不让她们带孩子实在是太可惜了。
 
这是怎样一种神力呢?
 
我们可以看到,留守儿童们的确面临着亲情缺失和缺乏行为管教的问题,但一些研究却显示出,在某些地区农村留守儿童的入学率或学习成绩反而要比非留守儿童高,这点在女孩们身上体现得特别明显。
 
循着这一点再细看下去,我们就会明白妈妈们的“超能力”。
 
许多研究都证明,如果让妈妈和孩子一起留守农村,爸爸出去打工,孩子的教育状况与以前相比往往不降反升;
 
然而,留守在家的如果是爸爸,而妈妈去打工,孩子的成绩则很可能出现大幅下降。
 
从另一种分类统计方式看,妈妈要是不在身边,孩子的学习很容易受影响;而爸爸在也好,不在也好,孩子成绩都不会有太大改变——如果爸爸外出打工,孩子成绩甚至会变好一点。
 
这样看来,妈妈是不是特别神奇?
 
 
不过,妈妈们的“神力”到底来自哪里?
 
研究者们当然没有用“男人就是不会带孩子”这么简陋的理由来解释,他们提出了这样一种假设:
 
首先,在工资方面,由于广泛存在的“收入不平等”,爸爸打工挣得的工资往往比妈妈高;
 
其次,在教育方面,传统的性别角色分工使得妈妈更愿意花费精力和金钱在孩子的教育上,对女孩的教育也会格外重视。
 
因此,当爸爸外出打工妈妈留守时,一方面家庭收入会变高,另一方面妈妈掌握着家庭的决策权,留守儿童也能获得比较好的情感照顾和教育投资。
 
当罗斯高说出“让妈妈回家”时可能正是出于这样的考量。
 
原来,妈妈们并非天生“神力”,而更像是“天降大任于斯人也”。
 
于是,有的妈妈回家了,她们辞去了工作,告别了原来的朋友,回到那个小小村庄。
 
但没有了积累金钱、人脉、见识的渠道,她们更加依赖丈夫,如果遇到了家暴或是想离婚,在当下社会,她们可能无路可走。
 
而有的妈妈选择把孩子带在身边,但问题又来了:没有户口怎么上学?放学了谁去接?一面辛苦工作,一面要给孩子做饭、洗衣、辅导功课,她们常常陷入忙不过来、顾此失彼的境地。
 
在“苦其心志,劳其筋骨,饿其体肤”后,她们继续默默无闻地践行着“责任越大,能力越大”。人们常常忘记,她们也是经历了摸爬滚打后,才习得的育儿神力。
 
不过,还是那句说了几百次也不够的话——照顾孩子不是妈妈一个人的责任。
 
 
网络上各种“别让男人带孩子”的搞笑视频可能只会让人笑着点一个赞,但当看到“父亲在家行使决策权相对而言不利于子女的教育”这句话呢?为什么父亲的不称职会看起来这么名正言顺、理所当然?
 
“爸爸带孩子”系列,在网络上成为搞笑段子。这里面的原因有很多,最主要的原因还是传统的性别分工。
 
事实上,从儿童玩具到职场招聘,我们所处的环境一遍遍强调着照顾小孩会有损男性气质、充斥着对男性育儿的不信任、甚至宣扬着家庭是男性的一种负担。但真正束缚了男性的不是家庭,而是这样一种陈腐的思维。
 
大多数育儿广告都只充斥着妈妈的身影,爸爸哪去了?
 
也有许多人并不否认爸爸参与育儿的重要性,但到了留守儿童的这个问题上,却会指责女权主义者“太过敏感”、“分不清主次”。
 
可这个问题真的能分为“主”和“次”吗?在饥荒中,难道会按每个家庭的男性成员数量分配粮食?在人口下降危机时,难道应该让女性变成生育机器吗?当我们在遇到问题时,为什么要采取一种牺牲女性的解决方式呢?
 
“吃不饱饭”和“性别不平等”之间一个很大的区别就是,前者是可以集中力量解决的具体问题,而后者则是藏在行动和细节里的魔鬼。
 
在留妈、流妈的育儿神力背后,是城乡的对立与资源不平等,是广大女性独自面临的收入不公、家庭与工作双倍压力。
 
要解决一个问题,总是有多种方法,与其粗暴地让母亲回村带娃,我们明明能有更加温柔且善意的选择:
 
我们可以选择呼吁收入平等,让母亲获得更多的经济自主,这样父亲也不必承担巨大的养家压力,孩子也能得到更多元的教育;同时,我们还可以选择鼓励父亲育儿,改变传统的父亲和孩子之间的关系,不再让孩子成为“丧偶是育儿”的牺牲品。
 
别再责怪农村妈妈不会照顾孩子了,如果不采用性别平等的方式改变世界,那就是在给不平等添砖加瓦。
 
参考资料:
杨菊华,段成荣. 农村地区流动儿童、留守儿童和其他儿童教育机会比较研究[J].人口研究,2008, 1 : 11-21.
郑磊,吴映雄. 劳动力迁移对农村留守儿童教育发展的影响———来自西部农村地区调查的证据[J]. 北京师范大学学报(社会科学版), 2014, 2 : 139-146.
 
作者 啖先且 
翻译专业在读,关注性别问题,不想出远门,想在太阳系老老实实呆一辈子
 
(未经许可,禁止转载)
 
 

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标准田园女权,著名特征之一就是不管讨论什么问题都像是在针对女性
我觉得您好像误解了演讲的重点。

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