跨界联合,终止性别暴力

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“女性角色被画得没女人味,作者是女的吧!”

23 六月 2020 - 05:06

将近一百年前,英国女作家弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫写道:“伟大的灵魂都是雌雄同体的。”

人们或许已经对这句话耳熟能详。但当一位“雌雄难辨”的艺术家真正出现时,人们的反应却非常诚实。

实际上,百年后的今天,人们对艺术家的性别,并没有我们以为的那样宽容。

 

因为是女性,

所以作品风评下降

 

今年五月,现象级少年漫作品《鬼灭之刃》完结了。这部漫画作品的累计发行量已经突破6000万,是如今日本最受欢迎的漫画之一。

 

讽刺的是,近期Twitter上对这部作品的讨论,却集中在漫画家的性别上。

《鬼灭之刃》的连载时间已有三年,这三年里,漫画作者吾峠呼世晴(贴心小编上线:念qiǎ)从未公开自己的性别,甚至可以说,在某种程度上进行了有意的回避。

作者的个人资料里明确写有“性别未公开”五个字,并且其自画像为一只戴着眼镜的鳄鱼,所以作者也被称为“鳄鱼老师”。

 

而据日本知名八卦杂志《周刊文春》爆料,吾峠呼世晴,其实是一位女性漫画家。

于是,许多人便开始下结论称,作者的性别,是《鬼灭之刃》中某些人物、剧情或技巧不足的重要原因。我国网友也在知乎上参与了讨论,从不同的角度解释女性漫画家与男性漫画家的不同,甚至有人问出了“为什么没有伟大的女漫画家”的问题。

他们的观点主要如下:

“大多数女性作者都理解不了男性所喜欢的装逼、耍酷的内容,哪怕她努力地想要加入这些内容,也很难抓住男性观众的心思。“

“战斗戏精彩是精彩,但我看着一点也不爽,因为男性作者对战斗是发自真心的喜欢,而且会描写主角自身的成就感,女性作者则有自己的私心。”

“所有的男性角色太过阴柔,发型的审美也太过女性化了。”

“女性角色被画得没有女人味,更像是中性的、未发育完全的幼女。”

“女性作者的视角最突出的特点就是,敏感细腻但是缺乏大格局,而男性作者在构思作品时眼界更广阔。”

……

知乎相关问题下的回答

这些话,说起来一套一套的,却半点也经不起深究。他们简单粗暴的、线性的“解释“背后,句句都是偏见。

首先,用性别来解释和评价作品,是否过度简单化了?所谓的“男性风格”或“女性风格”,是否太单一以及太绝对?难道世界上的人只要性别相同,就一定喜好相同吗?

其次,“战斗场面不够刺激”,或“主角缺乏自豪感,自省过于频繁”,一定是作品的劣势吗?粗犷、宏大、热血甚至略带暴力的风格,被视作是“伟大”作品应具备的因素,而细腻、敏感、纤柔、独特的特质,则被认为属于“小家子气”的女性风格。

第三,如果指责鳄鱼老师作为女性在创作过程中带有私心,那男性作者的私心,又为什么能被无条件满足?

“女性角色看起来没有足够性魅力”的抱怨,说明部分读者认为,漫画里的女性理所应当去承载男性的欲望,就像大部分少年漫中仅被用来提供所谓视觉福利、完成恋爱剧情的花瓶形象一样。

知乎相关问题下的回答

《鬼灭之刃》中的女性人物塑造可圈可点,立体而深厚,呈现出了女性角色的坚韧、柔情与复杂。然而,这一亮点却被部分读者强行说成了缺点,因为没有迎合男性的需求。

 

生而为女,我很抱歉?

 

在粉丝社群中,还有另一种声音:

作者“不公开性别”的举动,本身便证明了作者是女性。因为日本少年漫是男性漫画家的天下,他们毫无理由隐瞒自己是男性的事实,只有女性才会对自己的性别过于敏感,并选择将此“劣势”隐瞒起来。

创作了《使女的故事》等经典小说的加拿大女作家阿特伍德,在《自相矛盾和进退两难:妇女作为作家》中提到一个词:女画家症状。 

她曾经在1906年,听到一位男画家这样评价女画家:“当她画得不错时,我们称她为画家,当她画得不好时,我们称她为女画家。”

和“女司机”“女博士”等词一样,在这里,女性特质为后接的中性词涂上了贬义的色彩。这份贬义,是社会偏见结的果。

 

当女艺术家需要隐瞒自己的性别来获得认可时,说明她们的生存状态不容乐观。事实上,许多有创造力的女艺术家都无奈采取了类似做法。 

例如我们熟知的《傲慢与偏见》的作者简·奥斯汀,她最初使用的署名是她哥哥的名字亨利·奥斯汀。后来,她被发现是一名女性后,原本称赞她作品的人便立即转口攻击。

鼎鼎有名的勃朗特三姐妹,最初出道时同样署了男性的假名,分别是柯勒·贝尔、埃利斯·贝尔和阿克顿·贝尔。随着时间推移,人们开始怀疑《简爱》的作者是女人。此后,对《简爱》的舆论风向同样立刻转变,人们开始说这个故事道德沦丧,以及“写作终归不是属于妇女的事业”。

图/《隐于书后》

同样刻意隐瞒性别的女艺术家还有很多。

《弗兰肯斯坦》在初次出版时根本没有署名,直到1823年再版时才署上了玛丽·雪莱的名字;法国著名小说家乔治·桑,原名则是阿曼蒂娜-露西-奥萝尔·杜班;英国小说家乔治·艾略特,同样以男性的笔名来隐藏自己真实的身份。

当性别改变了,作者、作品受到的评价也截然不同了。这些从历史中摘来的例子,如今仍在改头换面,重新上演。

 

假装“雌雄同体”,

或许并非最佳选择

 

性别让女艺术家们充满了焦虑。

鳄鱼老师感受到的,或许是所有女艺术家都能感受的,那份社会性的偏见和大众舆论的压力。“女艺术家”“女漫画家”“女作家”等社会语境中的“贬义词”,会噩梦般萦绕她们一生。

基于Books in Print的数据,出版的独作书籍作者中有26%是女性名,男性名则占到了45(剩下的是中性名);女性作家的书籍平均比男性作家的书籍定价要低17.92美元。

难道一代又一代的女艺术家,仍然要以各种方式否认、抛弃、隐瞒自己的女性身份,才能够被认可吗?难道女艺术家的坚强、隐忍、勤奋和才华,永远都不能以其本来面目被承认吗?难道有才能的女性,只有雌雄同体这一条曲折小路可走吗?

艺术的殿堂理应向所有性别敞开,“伟大”的阶梯也应人人可攀登。

这个世界可以是多元且缤纷的,每种性别都能自由发挥,每份努力都被尊重。若让男性特质去笼罩、统领并同化这一片沃土,想想实在太可惜了。

 

 

P.S. 本文观点仅代表特约作者个人观点,部分图片来源网络。

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