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南丁格尔凭什么说,“护理是女人的天职”?
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南丁格尔凭什么说,“护理是女人的天职”?

14 五月 2020 - 07:05
说起中国小学生最先认识的外国女性榜样,除了居里夫人、海伦·凯勒之外,可能就是南丁格尔了。
 
南丁格尔被视为现代护理的先驱。1820年5月12日,南丁格尔诞生,昨天的国际护士日,是她的200岁生日。
 
 
如今,护理行业呈现出女多男少的局面,只有不到10%的护士为男性。
 
关心女性权益的人可能会对这个职业抱有比较复杂的感觉:一方面,它对女性相当友好,有利于女性获得独立、认可和尊重;但另一方面,它像女性在家庭中的传统角色的延伸,不断加固着“女性更细心、天生更会照顾人”的刻板印象。
 
可实际上,男性担任护士的历史相当之久。
 
从中世纪起的几个世纪里,在整个欧洲,都有僧侣照顾穷人和病人的习俗;男人也曾在美国内战期间担任护士。著名诗人沃尔特·惠特曼也曾从事过护理工作,还用一首名为《伤口包扎员》(The Wound Dresser)的诗记录了这段经历。
 
 
那么,护理行业是如何一步步从男性手中移交给女性的?“护士”又是如何与女性气质紧密相连的?
 
这一演变过程和南丁格尔紧密相关。
 
 

叛逆女青年南丁格尔

 
在成为传统慈母般的圣人之前,南丁格尔曾是一个叛逆女青年。
 
南丁格尔出生在一个英国上流社会家庭中。因为帮流浪动物包扎伤口的体验,让她希望成为一名护士,却遭到家人的强烈反对。
 
在那个时代,护士是很没有地位的工作,是只有贫苦低下阶层的女人为了谋生,才肯做的污秽工作,尤其在战争爆发之时,护士更需要随军奔赴战场,不但辛苦而且十分危险。在当时的人们看来:所谓护士大概与仆人、厨师之流差不多罢了。
 
南丁格尔的家人希望她做贵族小姐该做的事,结婚生子,娴静地待在家中,阅读,刺绣,保持良好的形象——一个完美的花瓶。
 
 
这种生活让她几乎发疯。
 
22岁时,南丁格尔以自身经历为蓝本,写了一篇名为《卡珊德拉》的短篇小说,描绘一个出身于舒适家庭的女孩,终日纠缠于空虚的贵族生活。英国作家弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫曾经评价《卡珊德拉》:不像是写作,而更像一种尖叫。
 
南丁格尔就像她笔下的女主人公一样,空有满腔的才智和热情,却被困在精致的庭院无法发挥,她认为这种痛苦足以使人丧命。
 
她迫切地想要离开,于是不顾家人的反对,于1851年前往德国参加护理培训,为此甚至拒绝了一桩婚事——这使她和家人之间爆发了激烈的冲突:家人用情感作为武器不断骚扰她,年轻的南丁格尔一度陷入抑郁和神经衰弱。
 
但这并没有阻碍南丁格尔前进的步伐。
 
1854年,克里米亚战争期间,南丁格尔前往英国主要军营的所在地,通过改善医院后勤服务和环境卫生,建立医院管理制度,提高护理质量,将士兵死亡率从42%降到了2%。这成了她最知名的贡献。
 
而她在夜间看护病人的身影,为她赢得了“提灯女神”的称号。
 
注:克里米亚战争,是1853年至1856年间在欧洲爆发的一场战争,俄国与英、法为争夺小亚细亚地区权利而开战,最终以俄方求和签订巴黎和约作结。
 
 
战争结束后,世界各地新开设的护理学校都开始教她的护理方法。
 
南丁格尔用行动,彻底改变了当时社会对护士的负面印象。在人们普遍认为“家庭就是女性归属”的当时,护理业也让当时的女性有机会在社会中占有一席之地。
 
 

“护理是女性的天职!”

 
南丁格尔对家庭的反叛,可能会让人觉得她是个性格不羁的自由主义者,但她骨子里却是个对传统道德和阶级相当固执的人。
 
在她的护理观中,也仍然给予了“家庭”重要的地位。
 
比如,她认为,清洁和道德是紧紧联系在一起的。她相信一切疾病都源自污物堆积,但人体本身就是一台全天24小时运载的污垢制造机,要保持足够的清洁,就需要勤奋的护士时时监护。而护士应当像照顾家人一样照顾病人,同时还肩负着教导病人养成良好习惯和品德的责任。
 
照顾+教导,这样的组合很容易让人想到传统家庭中“母亲”的角色。其实在南丁格尔看来,护士就该是一种“专业母亲”(或者反过来说母亲应该成为“专业护士”)。
 
她还认为,护理的最终目标是让所有病人在家里得到照护。在医院照顾病人,只是因为很多居民住房提供不了足够清洁卫生的环境。更进一步,她认为应该通过家庭的卫生条件、饮食和生活习惯来维护健康,而非通过医疗手段治愈病人——
 
在南丁格尔看来,只有母亲(或者说女性)能够担此重任。
 
要达到这一终极目标,就需要全体女性掌握足够多的知识和技能,全心全意地投入家庭生活之中。
 
在一本护理工作指南书中,她写道,每个女人都会在一生中的某些时刻担起护士的职责,但大部分女人都没有相应的知识和技能。
 
矛盾的是,一方面,作为职业护士的创始人,她反对将护理当作与生俱来、无师自通的技能;但另一方面,她也坚持护理工作是女性的天职,认为只有女性才能够细致入微地照顾病人,而护理培训也仅在女性身上能发挥作用。
 
随着她对护理行业的界定,护理被贴上了性别的标签,人们普遍认为只有女性才适合从事这一领域的工作,于是许多情况都发生了变化。
 
以美国为例,1901年,美国军队护士团成立后即拒绝男性参加,即使有男护士应征入伍,也不让他们从事护理工作,由此改变了军队护理由男性占主导地位的状况。直到1955年,艾森豪威尔总统签署了允许男性进入军队护理领域的法令,才扭转了持续了半个世纪的军队无男护士的局面。
 
1947年:最早的职业男护士之一
 
此外,南丁格尔还对职业护士提出两点要求:一是护士需要有更高的道德品行,二是护士(至少是护士长)的社会地位应该比她们的男性病人更高。
 
她认为那时候担任护理工作的都是些地位低下、能力不足、品格可疑的女人,但只有自律、道德的好女人才能做好护理工作,才有资格行使监管病人的权力。在培训护士的过程中,她总是强调,必须在没有道德瑕疵、对上帝虔诚的女性中招募护士。
 
南丁格尔的护士学校只招收女性,她还反对女性从事医生职业,认为闯入“专属于男性的领地”是很粗俗的。
 
她曾经在文章中恳求女性同胞远离两种盛行的观点:一种是认为男女没有差别,妇女应该做一切男人所做的事;另一种则是认为男女有别,女性不应该做男人做的事。
 
她的观点是,女性应该做自己做擅长的事,无视外界的声音。
 
 

南丁格尔的纠结三观

 
综合前面所述,南丁格尔对于女性的工作、家庭的态度其实是矛盾的:
 
热烈地追求事业,却认为女性最重要的角色还应该在家庭中;
不服从上流社会对女性的要求,同时在道德近乎洁癖;
反抗家庭的束缚,同时极为重视家庭的价值。
 
我们不难看出,她“叛逆”的底气其实源自她本身的高社会阶级、她的宗教虔诚以及道德洁癖。比起反叛者,她可能更像维多利亚时代的纪律委员,誓要清除社会上的不良风气——让母亲成为合格的母亲,让家庭成为合格的家庭。
 
她对护士的这种理解也一直延续到了今日。
 
今天,护士依旧被看作一个极其女性化的职业,这就带来了两个尴尬的现象:
 
一是,男性不愿做护士,他们经常成为玩笑的对象,从学校到职场都要面临来自各方面的压力。他们被看作缺乏男性气质,或者干脆被当作同性恋,在婚恋市场上也容易碰壁。
 
与之相对的则是,女护士在“最适合结婚的职业女性”榜单上名列前茅,但这也带来了第二重尴尬:女护士总被认为代表了一种温柔体贴又顺服的女性形象,其性别特征压过职业特征,被人们用有色眼镜看待。她们不被看作医生的帮手,而是附属;不是拥有知识和技能的专业人员,而是病房里的服务生。
 
从这点上看,如今的时代与维多利亚时代还是五十步笑百步。
 
图/《白衣战士》
 
如果有第三种尴尬的话,那就是男护士正渐渐从“珍稀动物”变为“香饽饽”,呼吁破除对男护士的刻板影响的言论,明显比支持女司机、女技工更容易得到认可。
 
一些呼吁消除刻板印象的人,更是将男性更强壮、更能吃苦作为论据,用一种刻板印象攻击另一种刻板印象,这不仅是对女护士职业精神的不尊重,更是对男护士专业能力的不尊重。
 
南丁格尔并不是圣人。作为一个聪明而有追求的上层阶级女性,她是在用一种传统的道德和性别观念,来对抗另一种传统的道德和性别观念。
 
她并不想要创建一个对女性更友好的职业道路,而是创造一个女性享有绝对权威的领域——以“家庭”概念为核心的专业护理。
 
在21世纪,我们依然感激这位女性先驱对护士职业的贡献,敬佩她在那个时代追求心之所向的勇气。但对于她提出的性别分工,还是敬谢不敏了。
 
真正专业的护理培训,可以让任何有心从事这个职业的人成为优秀的护士,而耐心、细心和关怀他人,无论在女性还是男性身上都是非常宝贵且难得的品质。
 
不如让我们稍微修改一下南丁格尔的发言:
 
无论什么性别的人都应该做自己想做的事,无视外界的声音。
 
作证:啖先且
翻译专业在读,关注性别问题,不想出远门,想在太阳系老老实实呆一辈子。
 
P.S. 本文观点仅代表特约作者个人观点,部分图片来源网络。
(未经许可,禁止转载)
 
参考资料:
theguardian.com/books/2005/jan/29/featuresreviews.guardianreview35
 
 
 
 
 

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