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“极品妈”怎么就成了国产女性剧的标配?
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“极品妈”怎么就成了国产女性剧的标配?

30 三月 2020 - 12:03

不知道大家发现没,最近这两年热播的国产剧,风向有点改变了。

虽然傻白甜女主仍然大行其道,但是很多剧情不再只停留在王子和灰姑娘的恋爱桥段上,或是只描述没完没了的婆媳矛盾。

现在有更多的大女主剧,开始注重对主角原生家庭的刻画。

典型的例子,比如《欢乐颂》里的樊胜美,《都挺好》里的苏明玉,再就是刚刚播完的《安家》里的房似锦。

这些女性角色,都是看上去光鲜亮丽,颜值、能力、事业都挑不出大毛病的女人,但她们的背后,却往往有一个一地鸡毛、“拖后腿”的家庭。

不仅如此,这些家庭还都挺相似的:

一个重男轻女的妈、一个无能平庸的爸,还有一两个兄弟。很多时候,兄弟的角色都比较吊儿郎当,事业上无所作为也就算了,还经常欠下一屁股债。

当然,这些债务都是要由女主来还的。

 

 

真是让人忍不住问一句:

为什么国产剧里的自强女性,就摊不上一个好妈呢?

 

“吸血鬼”式的母亲
 

《安家》里,房似锦的母亲潘贵雨,像是个女版的苏大强,但比起苏大强,她的罪更是罄竹难书。
 

△潘贵雨

 

《安家》在剧情刚开始铺设时有交待,房似锦刚出生的时候,因排行老四,又是个女儿,就被当妈的潘贵雨扔进了水井里。

等她好不容易长大成人、有了自己的一番事业,潘贵雨又狮子大开口,张口便找她要一百万。

不光对女儿苛刻,潘贵雨对长辈也特别心狠手辣。当自己的公公病重时,不光不将老人家送去医院,还一直以此为由欺骗女儿,以便继续压榨房似锦。

这种“吸血鬼”一般的行径,让我想起了《欢乐颂》里樊胜美的母亲。

 

 

这位在前几年引起全网讨论的刘美兰女士,可以说是把“双标”精神贯彻到了极致。

她的儿子从小被她宠坏,长大后没出息,成家立业后也没放过自己的亲妹妹。工作是樊胜美帮忙找的,房子要她出钱,连孩子都要她帮忙照顾。欠债出事后,还要樊胜美扛下所有的事情。

即便女儿为整个家庭付出了所有,但在刘美兰看来,那个不成器的儿子好歹还给她生了个孙子,完成了传宗接代的使命,但樊胜美只知道买无用的衣服和包包。

当女儿不愿意继续填补家里的无底洞时,她就夺命连环call,一直絮絮叨叨直到樊胜美投降。

虽然刘美兰有时也会流露一些愧疚,但这种愧疚的心理并不会使她多为女儿考虑,也不影响她继续压榨女儿。

这个妈的形象很鲜明:出身底层,劳苦一生但仍然活得比较挣扎穷酸。

她的身上透露出自相矛盾的底色:一方面,她指望“一家人有难同当”,并且也是这么教育和指示樊胜美的;但另一方面,真正大难临头的时候,这个家里的男人却通通都缺位了。

儿子闯下祸,却卷铺盖跟媳妇走人,连外孙都留下交给刘美兰。等债主讨上门来时,应门挡在前面的也是她和樊胜美。

 

 

但是,她的可怜和辛劳不足以抵消她的恶。

在刘美兰的观念里,女人天生就应该是被“传统”规训的:

花很多钱把自己打扮得花枝招展,这就是一种浪费,有时间不如考虑结婚生子的问题;女人不能三十岁了还不找对象结婚,不能不生儿子;这个“家”不论如何都得守护好,哪怕它再支离破碎;男人不努力不上进不要紧,女人顶上。

她如此,她教育女儿亦如此。

不知道是不是这个角色受到的关注度和讨论度让编剧尝到了甜头,再过几年又一个相似的角色横空出世,即《都挺好》里苏明玉的妈赵美兰。

比起前者,这位母亲“心狠”的程度又增添了不少。

赵美兰是个护士,算得上都市里的小中产,比较重视子女的教育。

但就是这样一个“知识分子”,一口拒绝了想上补习班的女儿,也在女儿好不容易靠自己考上了清华大学后,非要她转读师范学校。

与此相对的是,自己的二儿子只考上二本,她却能为他花大钱买个大学上。为了让大儿子去美国读书,她也不惜一切代价。

 

 

这个母亲是不会爱孩子吗?

并不,否则她为什么能对儿子那么好呢?

由于苏母出场戏份较少,剧情里对她重男轻女的原因也只是一带而过,原著中只说明,她是为了拿到城市户口才嫁给苏大强,达到目的后就想离婚,但女儿的出生,毁掉了她的计划。

在苏母看来,这个女孩是造成她的人生急转直下的罪魁祸首,是“意料之外的孩子”。

于是,从女儿一出生,她就对这个孩子充满了偏见。

如果说,樊胜美的妈妈的行为逻辑更像是一种受到传统影响、无意识的“蠢”,那么苏母就坏得更彻底了,因为她自始至终都明白自己对女儿的伤害。

但是,这种没有一丝温情和母性的坏,在房似锦她妈面前,多少有点小巫见大巫了。

或许苏母的职业还让她多少有些“端着”的姿态,但房似锦的妈,潘贵雨女士,则更像一个来“碰瓷”的工具人。

她开口就是一百万,还逼迫房似锦写下欠条。

房似锦拿不出钱,她就跑到办公室里,气势汹汹地表态,不给钱,就在公司打地铺,等拿到钱了再走。

在撒泼耍赖没在怕的潘贵雨面前,连职场上如鱼似水的房似锦也甘拜下风,“这么多年跟她斗智斗勇,都没有斗过她。”

如果说在刻画樊胜美妈妈时,还像留了一块遮羞布,到了潘贵雨,则变得毫无脸面和情分。

为了达到目的,她不择手段,把精明和恶毒都写在了脸上。

横向比较一下这三位母亲,她们都有重男轻女、压榨女儿的共同点,而在“坏”的程度上是逐个升级,让屏幕前的观众很难不骂上两句。 但发现没,这些女性向的职场剧,对于“恶母”坏的原因、她们的行为逻辑,总是拍得不够详细。

以至于骂完之后,观众还是不明白,她们为什么能那么极端和奇葩。

更甚之,观众会把结论下在多年媳妇熬成婆,总归女人要为难女人的点上。

 

警惕这些工具化的“恶母”

 

编剧为了突出女主角的“美强惨”,需要一个“后妈”式的人物。



△《欢乐颂》里的樊胜美

 

这种“消费母亲”的背后,是将她们当成了一个任人攻击的靶子。

一方面,类似的母亲角色迎合了观众的刻板印象:

不妨回忆一下自己的经历吧,当你想放假回家好好陪陪家人践行孝道时,“蜜月期”总坚持不了太久。你也理解妈妈们“为你好”,可谁还没有个烦心的时候呢,谁还没有个有点啰嗦,恨铁不成钢的妈呢?

另一方面,这样母强父弱的配置,也表现出家庭权力的转移。

家庭的维系和运作几乎全靠女性支撑,这传达了一种导向:女性生来就是为家庭无条件付出和牺牲的。

此外,家庭分工中的不平等也体现得非常鲜明。这几部国产剧中“失声”的爸爸们,拿着低廉的薪水,便好像已经履行了养家糊口的义务。

至于家务活,则全由女人包揽,教育子女的任务也落在女人身上。

在这种家庭环境下,母亲的角色是非常矛盾的。

她们既需要表现得像是传统意义上的好女人:相夫教子,安守妇道。同时,她们的性格又相对极端,特别是在压榨女儿的时候,直接、果断、锲而不舍,残忍得不留情面。

更矛盾的是,《欢乐颂》等剧本身是打着“大女主”的旗号宣传的,但关于母亲形象的塑造,跟之前的“恶婆婆”一样,要么是为了衬托女主人设的工具人,要么是“坏”得殊途同归,只是程度不一的符号人。

即便有对她们行为逻辑的解释,也只是浅尝辄止的探索,令人不明所以。

这样的剧情和偏向,反映出的还是人物的扁平和女权意识的局限。

 

 

类似单薄又类型化的“恶母”的出现,好像就只有一个目的:为了迎接观众的骂声而完成KPI,而不论合理与否、自洽与否、精彩与否。

但对观众来说,就算能闯进屏幕,将电视剧中的这些“恶母”大骂一通,又能怎样呢?
这样刻板地塑造母亲,是否也是编剧对女性的恶意呢?
有这样紧咬不放的妈,上述剧中的大多女主还是选择了无条件地忍让。
当然,即便是现实生活中,想完全摆脱原生家庭也是一件非常艰难的事情。只是面对这种困境时,该有的戏剧张力又“消失”了。

被“吸血”的女儿难以挣脱原生家庭束缚的原因是什么?她们在面对父母和兄弟时,又是怎样的心理状态?除了一味纵容和原谅,她们新的出路又在哪里?子女和原生家庭的界限怎么划分?

这些,我们都不得而知。

我们需要编剧去理性地呈现这些母亲的“恶”,去挖掘这些“恶”背后的因,由此才有机会将其消弭。

生活中受原生家庭之苦的女性不在少数,生而为女,我们不必抱歉。 

但请别让对原生家庭的讨论,停留在“全民愤怒”的“狂欢”中。

 

 

作者:小梅子

传播学搬砖小民工

P.S. 本文观点仅代表特约作者个人观点,部分图片来源网络。

(未经许可,禁止转载)

 

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