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对不起,我离婚的时候不需要冷静
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对不起,我离婚的时候不需要冷静

19 十二月 2019 - 11:12

2019年12月16日, 全文共计1260条的《中华人民共和国民法典(草案)》对外公布。

其中,离婚冷静期的相关条例再次引发激烈讨论。

看看草案里怎么说:

 

 

简单点说,就是夫妻双方决定协议离婚后,首先向婚姻登记机关申请,之后就面临着30天的离婚冷静期。

其中,只要有任何一方在30天内撤回申请,好,这婚没得离。

此外,就算没人撤回申请,在冷静期30天后的又一个30天里,双方需要“亲自”前往婚姻登记机关申请,才能拿到离婚证。要是有人反悔了,不去领,或者玩失踪,也会被视为撤回申请。

而只要离婚证没拿到手,前面的那些30天都算白费。

也难怪有律师吐槽:离个婚去民政局,还不如去法院起诉来得快!

现在的人们,为什么想离婚都难?

 

离婚冷静期限制了婚姻自由?

我国现行的婚姻制度之下,终结婚姻关系有两种途径:诉讼离婚和协议离婚。

客观而言,这两种途径手续都不复杂:

诉讼离婚只需要证明夫妻感情确已破裂(包含家庭暴力、婚内不正当关系等情形),且无和好可能,不涉及复杂的财产分割问题的离婚诉讼甚至往往可以当庭宣判;

协议离婚则更为简便,双方持本人身份证、户口簿、结婚证、离婚协议书、两寸照片,到当地民政婚姻登记部门填表签字,全程大约十五分钟,就能办理完离婚手续。

但在社会生活实际中,无论是“为了孩子”的隐忍不发,还是“宁拆十座庙,不拆一桩婚”的历史传承,还是以“家庭本位观”而非“个人本位观”为基础的社会结构,都很大程度上使得离婚决定在当代中国仍非易事。

 

△徐志摩与发妻张幼仪离婚曾掀起轩然大波 图/搜狐网

 

稍有阅历,经历过计划经济时代的读者或许都还有印象,在每个人都有所属单位的时代,提出离婚是一件会招来满城风雨的大事:

单位领导和政工部门会反复说和;

居委会、调解委员会不断调解;

家人亲友会晓之以情,动之以理,迫之以伦理纲常乃至身家性命;

而社会舆论更是会将离婚者视为“不正经”而加以讥笑、歧视和疏离。

 

△甚至还有婚登员出于“好心”来阻拦

 

我国离婚制度的改革过去一直追求精简,正是为了应对这种社会现实而有意为之。

而精简到了一定程度,势必会引发冲动离婚多发的负面效果。

离婚冷静期制度应运而出。

 

离婚冷静期变成“催命符”?

2017年3月,四川省资阳市安岳县人民法院发出该省首封“离婚冷静期”通知书;

同年10月,济南市市中区法院在全市首推离婚冷静期制度。

真正激起舆论的,是2018年7月,最高法发文规定,人民法院审理离婚案件,经双方当事人同意,可以设置不超过3个月的冷静期。

 

△网友反应热烈

 

这一离婚冷静期制度,并不涉及协议离婚,只对诉讼离婚有效,不少法学学者提出,制度的初衷在于最大程度上遏制冲动型诉讼离婚。

仅从定义上看,冷静期是一种对审理期限的暂停,除了可能导致诉讼离婚的周期延长外,并不构成对离婚当事人诉权、离婚权的实质影响。

但现实的因素总是更为复杂。

《婚姻法》是新中国成立后出台的第一部基本法。

1950年1月初,邓颖超在中央妇委进一步讨论《婚姻法》草稿的条文时,在“一方坚持离婚可以离婚”这一条与其他人产生了分歧。

她解释说:

“我为什么主张不加条件,一方要离就可离呢?理由是中国长期停滞在封建社会,最受压迫的是妇女,婚姻问题上妇女所受的痛苦最深。早婚、老少婚、买卖婚姻、包办婚姻是普遍现象,所以,一方坚持要离就让离,主要根据广大妇女的利益提出。”

而事实是,接近70年过去,如今妇女在婚姻中的状况依旧不乐观。

 

△类似的新闻比比皆是

 

对于这次设立的离婚冷静期草案,我们询问了橙律师,橙律师同样持保留态度,并称这是没意义的。

尤其是针对存在诸如家暴等特殊恶劣情节的案件,搞不好,离婚冷静期可能变成“催命符”。

因此,退一步讲,即使设置离婚冷静期,一是要充分尊重双方意愿,只有双方都同意了才可以考虑设置;

二是不能搞一刀切,即使要设置,对于类似存在家暴、虐待等暴力情节,以及双方感情确已破裂等情形的,不应设置离婚冷静期。

对于那些在司法实践中,相关基层法院已经在施行的离婚冷静制度,也没什么实际价值,反而会加大离婚时间成本,浪费有效的司法资源。

 

P.S. 本文观点仅代表特约作者个人观点,部分图片来源网络。

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